The General Test measures verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, critical thinking and analytical writing skills — skills that have been developed over a long period of time and are not related to a specific field of study but are important for all.
The Verbal Reasoning section measures your ability to:
The Verbal Reasoning section measures your ability to:
The Analytical Writing section measures your ability to:
The Analytical Writing section measures your ability to:
The Analytical Writing section requires you to provide focused responses based on the tasks presented, so you can accurately demonstrate your skill in directly responding to a task.
Part Two: The Section Two will be subject-specific. The applicant will choose the subject with respect to the area of research he / she intends to pursue. The paper will be of 50 marks. The syllabus for different subjects has been laid as under: (For details, refer to Annexure One)
Fundamentals of aesthetics, definitions and glossaries, specialist aspects of styling, aesthetics of a objects, interpretations of aesthetics, various art movements and schools of art
Understanding of the history of Design, developments in design and functionality in the context of time, cultural and technological factors influencing design with time and the interplay between the two
Various elements of design such as balance, harmony, rhythm, form, composition, colour, elements of composition, space and structure, 2D forms, 3D forms, form studies, form transformation and form transition, colour and texture.
Relation between form and emotions, form and function
Forms in nature and forms in products, advanced form studies, form and emotion, 3D forms (Abstract forms) and surfaces, product forms, product Semantics, nature and form, form and movement
Understanding existing system, analysis of elements of system, open systems, closed systems, communication within the system, importance of dependencies of elements within the system, consequences of changing element/s of the system, interdependencies of different systems on each other, analyzing existing products, services and inter and intra service elements, understanding of different systems within the given system.
Identifying existing experience metaphor, identifying products and services related to it, designing, introducing or removing identified products and sub-systems to enhance the experience and efficiency of system, detail design and embodiment, experience prototyping (enactments), communicating and presenting the design concept, user testing and evaluation.
Semantics, semiotics, Ethnographic Analysis, task analysis, time study.
Fundamentals of cellular biology, genetics and molecular biology are addressed. Major topics in cellular structure and function include prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, metabolic pathways and their regulation, membrane dynamics and cell surfaces, organelles, cytoskeleton, and cell cycle. Major areas in genetics and molecular biology include viruses, chromatin and chromosomal structure, genomic organization and maintenance, and the regulation of gene expression. The cellular basis of immunity and the mechanisms of antigen-antibody interactions are included. Attention is also given to experimental methodology.
Biological compounds – Macromolecular structure and bonding, Abiotic origin of biological molecules, Enzyme activity, receptor binding, and regulation, Major metabolic pathways and regulation – Respiration, fermentation, and photosynthesis, Synthesis and degradation of macromolecules, Hormonal control and intracellular messengers, Membrane dynamics and cell surfaces – Transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis, Electrical potentials and transmitter substances, Mechanisms of cell recognition, intercellular transport and communication, Cell wall and extracellular matrix, Organelles: structure, function, synthesis, and targeting – Nucleus, mitochondria, and plastids, Endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes, Golgi apparatus and secretory vesicles, Lysosomes, peroxisomes, and vacuoles, Cytoskeleton: motility and shape – Actin-based systems, Microtubule-based systems, Intermediate filaments, Bacterial flagella and movement, Cell cycle: growth, division, and regulation (including signal transduction), Methods – Microscopy (e.g., electron, light, fluorescence), Separation (e.g., centrifugation, gel filtration, PAGE, fluorescence-activated cell sorting [FACS]), Immunological (e.g., Western Blotting, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence).
Genetic foundations – Mendelian inheritance, Pedigree analysis, Prokaryotic genetics (transformation, transduction and conjugation), Genetic mapping, Chromatin and chromosomes – Nucleosomes, Karyotypes, Chromosomal aberrations, Polytene chromosomes, Genome sequence organization – Introns and exons, Single-copy and repetitive DNA, Transposable elements, Genome maintenance – DNA replication, DNA mutation and repair, Gene expression and regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: mechanisms – The operon, Promoters and enhancers, Transcription factors, RNA and protein synthesis, Processing and modifications of both RNA and protein, Gene expression and regulation: effects – Control of normal development, Cancer and oncogenes, Whole genome expression (e.g., microarrays), Regulation of gene expression by RNAi (e.g., siRNA), Epigenetics, Immunobiology – Cellular basis of immunity, Antibody diversity and synthesis, Antigen-antibody interactions, Bacteriophages, animal viruses, and plant viruses – Viral genomes, replication, and assembly, Virus-host cell interactions, Recombinant DNA methodology – Restriction endonucleases, Blotting and hybridization, Restriction fragment length polymorphisms, DNA cloning, sequencing, and analysis, Polymerase chain reaction.
The structure, physiology, behavior and development of organisms are addressed. Topics covered include nutrient procurement and processing, gas exchange, internal transport, regulation of fluids, control mechanisms and effectors, and reproduction in autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms. Examples of developmental phenomena range from fertilization through differentiation and morphogenesis. Responses to environmental stimuli are examined as they pertain to organisms. Major distinguishing characteristics and phylogenetic relationships of organisms are also covered.
Animal Structure, Function and Organization – Exchange with environment – Nutrient, salt, and water exchange, Gas exchange, Energy Internal transport and exchange – Circulatory, respiratory, excretory, and digestive systems Support and movement – Support systems (external, internal, and hydrostatic), Movement systems (flagellar, ciliary, and muscular), Integration and control mechanisms – Nervous and endocrine systems, Behavior (communication, orientation, learning, and instinct), Metabolic rates (temperature, body size, and activity).
Animal Reproduction and Development – Reproductive structures, Meiosis, gametogenesis, and fertilization, Early development (e.g., polarity, cleavage, and gastrulation), Developmental processes (e.g., induction, determination, differentiation, morphogenesis, and metamorphosis), External control mechanisms (e.g., photoperiod).
Organs, tissue systems, and tissues, Water transport, including absorption and transpiration, Phloem transport and storage, Mineral nutrition, Plant energetics (e.g., respiration and photosynthesis).
Plant Reproduction, Growth, and Development, with Emphasis on Flowering Plants Reproductive structures, Meiosis and sporogenesis, Gametogenesis and fertilization, Embryogeny and seed development, Meristems, growth, morphogenesis, and differentiation, Control mechanisms (e.g., hormones, photoperiod, and tropisms).
Diversity of Life – Archaea – Morphology, physiology, and identification, Bacteria, Morphology, physiology, pathology, and identification, Protista, Protozoa, other heterotrophic Protista (slime molds and Oomycota), and autotrophic Protista, Major distinguishing characteristics, Phylogenetic relationships, Importance (e.g., eutrophication, disease).
Fungi – Distinctive features of major phyla (vegetative, asexual and sexual reproduction), Generalized life cycles, Importance (e.g., decomposition, biodegradation, antibiotics, and pathogenicity), Lichens, Animalia with emphasis on major phyla, Major distinguishing characteristics, Phylogenetic relationships, Plantae with emphasis on major phyla – Alternation of generations, Major distinguishing characteristics, Phylogenetic relationships.
The interactions of organisms and their environment, emphasizing biological principles at levels above the individual are addressed. Ecological topics range from physiological adaptations to the functioning of ecosystems. Although principles are emphasized, some questions may consider applications to current environmental problems. Topics in evolution range from genetic foundations through evolutionary processes and to their consequences. Evolution is considered at the molecular, individual, population and higher levels. Some quantitative skills, including the interpretation of simple mathematical models, may be required.
Ecology – Environment/organism interaction – Biogeographic patterns, Physiological ecology, Temporal patterns (e.g., seasonal fluctuations), Behavioral ecology – Habitat selection, Mating systems, Social systems, Resource acquisition, Population ecology, Population dynamics/regulation, Demography and life history strategies, Community ecology – Direct and indirect interspecific interactions, Community structure and diversity, Change and succession, Ecosystems – Productivity and energy flow, Chemical cycling.
Evolution – Genetic variability – Origins (mutations, linkage, recombination, and chromosomal alterations), Levels (e.g., polymorphism and heritability), Spatial patterns (e.g., clines and ecotypes), Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, Macroevolutionary and microevolutionary processes – Gene flow and genetic drift, Natural selection and its dynamics, Levels of selection (e.g., individual and group), Trade-offs and genetic correlations, Natural selection and genome evolution, Synonymous vs. nonsynonymous nucleotide ratios, Evolutionary consequences – Fitness and adaptation – Speciation, Systematics and phylogeny, Convergence, divergence, and extinction, Coevolution, History of life – Origin of life, Fossil record, Paleontology and paleoecology, Lateral transfer of genetic sequences.
Data Acquisition and Use of Statistics — Errors, statistical considerations, Solutions and Standardization — Concentration terms, primary standards, Homogeneous Equilibria — Acid-base, oxidation-reduction, complexometry, Heterogeneous Equilibria — Gravimetric analysis, solubility, precipitation titrations, chemical separations, Instrumental Methods — Electrochemical methods, spectroscopic methods, chromatographic methods, thermal methods, calibration of instruments, Environmental Applications, Radiochemical Methods — Detectors and applications.
Periodic trends, oxidation states, nuclear chemistry, Ionic Substances — Lattice geometries, lattice energies, ionic radii and radius/ratio effects, Covalent Molecular Substances — Lewis diagrams, molecular point groups, VSEPR concept, valence bond description and hybridization, molecular orbital description, bond energies, covalent and van der Waals radii of the elements, intermolecular forces, Metals and Semiconductors — Structure, band theory, physical and chemical consequences of band theory.
Concepts of Acids and Bases — Brønsted-Lowry approaches, Lewis theory, solvent system approaches, Chemistry of the Main Group Elements — Electronic structures, occurrences and recovery, physical and chemical properties of the elements and their compounds, Chemistry of the Transition Elements — Electronic structures, occurrences and recovery, physical and chemical properties of the elements and their compounds, coordination chemistry. Special Topics — Organometallic chemistry, catalysis, bioinorganic chemistry, applied solid-state and environmental chemistry.
Structure, Bonding and Nomenclature — Lewis structures, orbital hybridization, configuration and stereochemical notation, conformational analysis, systematic IUPAC nomenclature, spectroscopy (IR and 1H and 13C NMR), Functional Groups — Preparation, reactions, and interconversions of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, dienes, alkyl halides, alcohols, ethers, epoxides, sulfides, thiols, aromatic compounds, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives, amines, Reaction Mechanisms — Nucleophilic displacements and addition, nucleophilic aromatic substitution, electrophilic additions, electrophilic aromatic substitutions, eliminations, Diels-Alder and other cycloadditions, Reactive Intermediates — Chemistry and nature of carbocations, carbanions, free radicals, carbenes, benzynes, enols, Organometallics — Preparation and reactions of Grignard and organolithium reagents, lithium organocuprates, and other modern main group and transition metal reagents and catalysts, Special Topics — Resonance, molecular orbital theory, catalysis, acid-base theory, carbon acidity, aromaticity, antiaromaticity, macromolecules, lipids, amino acids, peptides, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, terpenes, asymmetric synthesis, orbital symmetry, polymers.
Thermodynamics — First, second, and third laws, thermochemistry, ideal and real gases and solutions, Gibbs and Helmholtz energy, chemical potential, chemical equilibria, phase equilibria, colligative properties, statistical thermodynamics, Quantum Chemistry and Applications to Spectroscopy — Classical experiments, principles of quantum mechanics, atomic and molecular structure, molecular spectroscopy, Dynamics — Experimental and theoretical chemical kinetics, solution and liquid dynamics, photochemistry.
Material learned in the usual sequence of elementary calculus courses — differential and integral calculus of one and of several variables — including calculus-based applications and connections with coordinate geometry, trigonometry, differential equations and other branches of mathematics.
Elementary algebra: basic algebraic techniques and manipulations acquired in high school and used throughout mathematics.
Linear algebra: matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, vector spaces, linear transformations, characteristic polynomials, and eigenvalues and eigenvectors.
Abstract algebra and number theory: elementary topics from group theory, theory of rings and modules, field and number theory.
Introductory real analysis: sequences and series of numbers and functions, continuity, differentiability and integrability, and elementary topology of R and Rn.
Discrete mathematics: logic, set theory, combinatorics, graph theory, and algorithms.
Other topics: general topology, geometry, complex variables, probability and statistics, and numerical analysis.
Kinematics, Newton’s laws, work and energy, oscillatory motion, rotational motion about a fixed axis, dynamics of systems of particles, central forces and celestial mechanics, three-dimensional particle dynamics, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism, noninertial reference frames, elementary topics in fluid dynamics.
Electrostatics, currents and DC circuits, magnetic fields in free space, Lorentz force, induction, Maxwell’s equations and their applications, electromagnetic waves, AC circuits, magnetic and electric fields in matter.
Wave properties, superposition, interference, diffraction, geometrical optics, polarization and Doppler effect.
Laws of thermodynamics, thermodynamic processes, equations of state, ideal gases, kinetic theory, ensembles, statistical concepts and calculation of thermodynamic quantities, thermal expansion and heat transfer.
Fundamental concepts, solutions of the Schrödinger equation (including square wells, harmonic oscillators, and hydrogenic atoms), spin, angular momentum, wave function symmetry and elementary perturbation theory.
Properties of electrons, Bohr model, energy quantization, atomic structure, atomic spectra, selection rules, black-body radiation, x-rays, atoms in electric and magnetic fields.
Classification of F & B/Catering Industry.
F & B Service Personnel & Attributes, F & B outlets, Equipments & allied areas, Types and Methods of service, Table service, Menu & Menu knowledge, French Classical Service, Specialized services In situ, Gueridon service, Function catering, Banquets, ODC,F & B controls system sKOT/BOT, electronic devices
Alcoholic Beverage Service:
Wines – types& manufacturing of wines, French wines& other brands, champagne types, brands, service.
Spirits distillation process Whiskey, Rum Vodka Gin and Brandy making & types, brands of all and services, Liqueurs –types & making, brands, Vermouth types, brands, Cocktails types, making, names.
Non-alcoholic Beverages: Refreshing, Stimulating (Tea/Coffee), Nourishing, brands & services of all
Bar Operations & Management: Types of Bar, Parts of Bar, Profile of Bar, Restaurant Management: Types, Design planning, Layout
Culinary history & Origin of modern cookery
Foundation of continental Cooking Stocks, Soups, Sauces, Cooking Techniques.
Food preservation and Storage around the world.
Food commodities and role of ingredients
Vegetable and food cookery
Eggs & Poultry Types, Uses and characteristics.
Fish Mongery Types of Fish, Cuts Of fish, Uses of Fish.
Meat Cookery Composition of meat, Aging, Factors affecting tenderness Cuts of meat, International Cuisine Food, Culture, Trends and Classical appetizers
Bakery & confectionary:
Role of Ingredients in Bakery and Confectionary.
Frozen desserts Ice creams.
Food nutrition & Food safety:
Hygiene & Sanitation in Food Production and food service area (HACCP), Food composition Colour Pigments, Nutritional Properties, Food Additives and preservatives.
Front office: Hotel organization
Classifying functional areas, Rooms division, Sales and marketing, Engineering and maintenance, Human resource division
Front office operations, Organisation of front office, Job description, Job specification, Reservations Reservations and sales, Types of reservations, Reservation enquiries, Reports generated by front office Interdepartmental communication
The role of Housekeeping in Hospitality Operations
Types of hotels, Hotels divisions and departments, Housekeeping and front office, Housekeeping and maintenance, Identifying housekeeping’s responsibilities,
Area inventory list, Frequency schedules, Performance standards, Productivity standards, Inventory levels, Managing Inventories Establishing par levels for linens, Guest room cleaning
Planning of laundry and linen room, Activities of laundry and linen room
Introduction to hospitality and its segments
Trends into hospitality sector
Tourism in Perspective: Definition Tourism; Tour; Tourist; Visitor; Excursionist; Domestic; International; Inbound; Outbound; Destination, Growth of Tourism / Evolution / History of Tourism & Present status of tourism in India
Component of Tourism and Tourism Management:
Primary Constituents of Tourism
Secondary Constituents of Tourism
Basic Approaches to the study of Tourism
The 5 A’s of Tourism Attraction, Accessibility, Accommodation, Amenities, Activities, The 5 S’s of Tourism Sea, Sun, Sand and Sex.
Heritage Tourism, National & International Destinations
Fundamental Duties and Directive Principles of State Policy: Legal status, underlying object, nature and character of directives, classification and categories of directives.
Amendment of the Constitution
Equality and Social Justice (Articles 14 to 18).
Scope of Article 19: Scope of the Freedoms as guaranteed in Article 19(1) (a) to (g) & Reasonable Restrictions.
Right to Life and Personal Liberty – Nature, Scope and Expanding Horizons of Article 21
Communication, Acceptance and Revocation of Proposals, Contracts, Void Contracts and Voidable Agreements, Contingent Contracts , Indemnity and Guarantee, Bailment and Pledge, Agency appointment and Authority of Agents.
Origin and Development of Law of Torts in England, Meaning and Function of Law of Torts – Prescribing standards of Human Conduct, Redressal of Wrongs by Payment of Compensation, Injunction, Constituents of Tort – Wrongful Act, Legal Damage and Remedy – Injuria Sine Damno and Damnum Sine Injuria – Ubi jus Ibi remedium, Relevance of Intention, Motive and Malice in Law of Torts, Environmental Tort from Indian Perspective.
Offences against the State, Offences against the Public Tranquillity, Offences affecting the Human Body, Offences affecting the Public Health, Safety, Convenience, Decency and Morals, Offences against Property, Defamation.
Communication– Basic terms, Concepts and definition, Nature and Process
Types of Communication
Mass Media – Nature of Media and Content
Mass Media in India – Reach, access and Nature of Audience
Role of Media in Society
Characteristics of Indian Society – Demographic and Sociological impact of media Impact of media on specific audiences – Women, children, etc
Mass campaigns for specific issues – Social concerns, environment, human rights, gender equality.
Newspapers – English and Indian language press – major landmarks;
Development of Radio after independence – Extension role, radio rural forums and local broadcasting – General and specific audience programs.
Development of Television – Perception, initial development and experimental approach; Expansion of television – Post – Asiad phase, issues concerns and debates over a period of time.
Cinema – Historical overview and contemporary analysis – Commercial, parallel and documentary genres – Problems and prospects for the film industry.
Radio & TV and Film as Media of Communication
Grammar of TV & Radio and Film
Key professionals in the radio, television and film sector
Formats for Radio & Television: News, Sitcoms, Features, Commercials, Operas, Documentaries, Cinema, Theatre, Drama Camera Movements
Editing Theory and Practice
Sound Design, Microphones, Sets and Lighting
Satellite, Cable television, Computers, Microchips
Ad copy and Layout
Marketing Environment and Environment Scanning; Marketing Information Systems and Marketing Research; Understanding Consumer and Industrial Markets; Demand Measurement and Forecasting; Market Segmentation – Targeting and Positioning; Product Decisions, Product mix, Product Life Cycle; New Product Development; Branding and Packaging; Pricing Methods and Strategies.
Promotion Decisions – Promotion mix; Advertising; Personal Selling; Channel Management; Marketing of Services; Customer Relation Management.
Uses of Internet as Marketing Medium – Other related issues like branding, market development, Advertising and retailing on the net.
New issues in Marketing
Probability Theory; Probability distributions – Binomial, Poisson, Normal and Exponential; Correlation and Regression analysis; Sampling theory; Sampling distributions; Tests of Hypothesis; Large and small samples; t, z, F, Chi – square tests.
Analysis of Variance; Non-parametric Methods; Time Series and Forecasting; Decision Theory.
Concept of Corporate Strategy; Components of Strategy Formulation; Ansoffs Growth Vector; BCG Model; Porter’s Generic Strategies; Competitor Analysis; Strategic Dimensions and Group Mapping; Industry Analysis; Strategies in Industry Evolution, Fragmentation, Maturity, and decline.
Competitive strategy and Corporate Strategy; Managing Cultural Diversity; Global Entry Strategies; Globalisation of Financial System and Services; Managing International Business; Competitive Advantage of Nations.
Concepts – Types, Characteristics; Motivation; Competencies and its development; Innovation and Entrepreneurship; Small business – Concepts Government policy for promotion of small and tiny enterprises; Process of Business Opportunity Identification.
Detailed business plan preparation; Managing small enterprises; Planning for growth; Sickness in Small Enterprises; Rehabilitation of Sick Enterprises; Organizational Entrepreneurship.